The language used to describe the architecture is called Unified Modeling Language or UML. It's basically a blueprint of a system. Here's a link to UML 2.2.
Microsoft Visual Studio Ultimate offers a way to document visually, under the Architecture menu item shown below:
Here you see the project type in Visual Studio Ultimate to create a new Project:
Here's a link on creating UML Projects and Diagrams: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd409445.aspx?f=255&MSPPError=-2147217396
Modeling the Architecture of a Software System: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd490886.aspx
Generating and Configuring Your Application from Models: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff472563.aspx
You can generate code based on your UML Visual Studio Project: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff657795.aspx
In Visual Studio Ultimate, you can use a layer diagram to visualize the high-level, logical architecture of your system: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd409462.aspx You can use common Architectural patters such as Presentation Layer, Business Layer, Data Layer and Common Layer.
Developing Models for Software Design: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd409436.aspx
Here's a link to Microsoft Visual Studio Architecture, Design and Model: https://www.visualstudio.com/en-us/features/architecture-and-modeling-vs.aspx
Structuring Modeling Solutions: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff817716.aspx
Here's a good blog post on creating Classes from UML in Visual Studio: Creating Classes From UML Diagrams in Visual Studio 2012
You can create a Work Item and connect it to Team Foundation Server TFS in Visual Studio.
This blog does a good job of defining the object types within a UML project "Code Generation from UML Class Diagram in Visual Studio 2012 Ultimate": http://www.dotnetcurry.com/showarticle.aspx?ID=831
And another good article here: The Simplest Thing Possible: Architectural Tools in VS and part 2.
Lastly, here's a forum for Visual Studio Modeling: https://social.msdn.microsoft.com/Forums/vstudio/en-US/home?forum=vsarch