First, there's the elusive phenomenon called Artificial Intelligence. There's the "weak" type, like Cortana or Siri, which exists today in commercial applications. And there's the "strong" called Artificial General Intelligence, which is still pending, time to delivery 65 years and counting.
And still yet, an even tougher challenge exists. Called Quantum Computing. Going past the traditional microchips designed on the binary algorithm of dual states, zeros and ones, the new concept tries to leverage the quirky physics called "Quantum Physics".
Such that the state can be zero or one, or zero and one, or partial zero and partially one. The unit of measurement is called "Qubit". This allows more combinations simultaneously, thus, more processing power in shorter time.
The Qubit requires an unusual environment, very cold temperatures and isolated from outside interference. The machines are costly to build, maintain as are the new scientist that work on them.
In essence, they are building the new equivalent of the transistor. The competition to build a working quantum computer is intense. Many high tech organizations with deep pockets are funding these decade long projects. With hopes to build a working machine and the blueprint for the next wave of inventive architectures and solutions.
Here's a link that describes Microsoft's vision and status thus far:
And a YouTube video of one of Microsoft's top Quantum Scientist:
This stuff is fascinating. I don't understand any of it. Well, maybe some. I get tangled in the de-coherence and my superposition of vector state is entangled in sub-particles. Thus, not sure if I understand completely, not at all, both, or somewhere in between.
Lastly, here's a link on a new language designed to process Quantum algorithms on Quantum Machines with a catchy name "LIQUI>" (liquid):
If you understand this stuff, have a PhD and a good understanding of Physics, Machine Learning and Computers, there's definitely a job out there waiting for you.
Thanks for reading~!